Lesson Name: Coronavirus Disease 2019
Lesson period: 26 Jun 20 to 26 Jul 20
Good for: 16+ General Public
Quiz Date: 26 Jul 2020 (See Upcoming Prime Quizzes)

Equip yourself with the basic knowledge provided in the lesson below and get prepared for *Covid-19 Quiz
*All 5 questions of Covid-19 Quiz will be taken from this lesson.

This lesson is sponsored by  

What are Viruses?

  • Viruses are microscopic infectious parasites.
  • Viruses are unique. They are only alive and able to replicate within a living host cell.
  • Viruses are smallest of all microbes with a diameter of less than 200 nanometers (nm).
  • Viruses hijack the host cell’s machinery and use it to replicate their own genetic material.
  • Viruses are made up of the core genetic elements, either RNA or DNA enclosed in a protein shell.

Coronavirus
CORONA means CROWN in Latin.
Coronaviruses are named for the crown-like spiky projections on their surface.


Sub-grouping of coronaviruses
Scientists have divided human coronaviruses into four main sub-groups.
Alpha - Beta - Gamma - Delta

Types of human coronaviruses
There are seven types of coronaviruses that could infect people.

Common human coronaviruses types 
229E  (α-CoV)
NL63  (α-CoV)
OC43  (β-CoV)
HKU1 (β-CoV)

Less- common deadly human coronaviruses types
MERS-CoV (β-CoV) - Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus
SARS-CoV (β-CoV) - Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus
SARS-CoV-2 (β-CoV) - Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2

   Did you know...

Our immune system acts as a defensive barrier. A healthy immune system can defeat invading pathogens.

What is COVID-19?

  • COVID-19 is the infectious respiratory disease caused by the most recently discovered “Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).  This new disease and virus were first detected in December 2019, in the city of Wuhan, China. On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organisation (WHO) declared COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic.

How COVID-19 Spreads?

People can catch COVID-19…

♦ if they breathe in small droplets expelled from the nose or mouth of a person with COVID-19.
       »»» This is why it is important to wear a face mask and stay at least 2 meters away from others.

♦ by touching the objects that have the virus on their surface, then touch their own nose, mouth or eyes.
       »»» This is why it is important to wash your hands frequently with soap and water for at least 20 seconds.

   Did you know...

•  Talking can produce about 2,600 small droplets, so small that they can float in the air for eight to 14 minutes.
• A single cough can expel about 3,000 droplets. Some of them fly out of the mouth up to 12 feet at a speed of up to 50 miles per hour.
• A sneeze can generate about 40,000 fine droplets. Some of them, less than 100 μm*, rocket out at a speed greater than 200 miles per hour.


* micrometre, also commonly known as a micron.

Symptoms of COVID-19

 

The most common symptoms are:

  • Fever (a high temperature) – this means you feel hot to touch on your chest or back.
  • A new continuous dry cough.
  • Tiredness

Other symptoms that are less common may include:

  • Diarrhea
  • Headache
  • Sore throat
  • Aches and Pains
  • Nasal congestion
  • Shortness of breath
  • Loss of taste or smell

Self-quarantine

Stay home if you feel sick unless
you are experiencing a medical emergency

Count to Twenty

Wash your hands often and thoroughly
with soap and water for at least 20 seconds

Avoid Touching your Face 

The virus might enter your body if your hands
come into contact with your mouth, nose and eyes

Self-quarantine


Self-quarantine means to separate yourself from others because you may have been exposed to contagious disease, even though you do not have any symptoms. During 14 days self-quarantine you should,

  • stay in a large well-ventilated room.
  • have separate toilet and hand hygiene facility.
  • avoid meeting friends and relatives.
  • keep at least 2 metres distance from family members.
  • Monitor your symptoms daily.
  • stay positive and keep in touch with loved ones electronically.

If you get sick


Most people have mild illness and are able to recover at home. Isolate yourself. Take over-the-counter medicines for pain, fever and cough. Seek a medical advice immediately, if you develop severe breathing problem.

  • Eat nutritious food.
  • Get plenty of rest and stay hydrated.
  • Daily take a shower or use a dehumidifier.
  • Wear a face mask in the presence of others.
  • Spend your time in reading books, watching movies, surfing web.
  • Don't share personal households like cups, utensils, towels and bedding.

Diagnosis:

Based on your signs and symptoms, Coronavirus Disease 2019 or COVID-19 can be diagnosed by conducting tests for the virus that causes COVID-19. The testing (except antibody test) is considered effective up until day 5.

  • COVID-19 Diagnostic Tests Include:
    • Molecular Test:
      This test detects the genetic material (RNA) of the virus. Molecular Test, also called *PCR, is considered the most accurate test. A 6-inch long swab is inserted through both nostrils, into the cavity between the nose and mouth of the suspected patient to collect the fluid.
    • Antigen Test:
      This test detects certain proteins that are part of the virus. Using a nasal or throat swab to get a fluid sample, antigen tests can produce results in minutes. This test is faster and less expensive than Molecular Test. Antigen Test is not as sensitive as Molecular Test is.
    • Antibody Test:
      Antibody Test also called 'Serology Test', determines whether you had previously infected by the coronavirus and now have antibodies developed against the virus. To get antibody testing, you must be fully recovered from COVID-19. It takes about 1 to 3 weeks after the infection to make antibodies.

    * A lab technique called Polymerase chain reaction

Treatment:

There are no medicines, vaccines or curative medical treatment that have been shown to prevent or cure COVID-19. The disease has exerted unprecedented worldwide impact on health care system. Most people have mild illness and can recover with good supportive care at home without medical care.


NOTE: To get the most effective ways to protect yourself and others against COVID-19, follow the advice of your national health authority.

  • If your infected with COVID-19, you should clean and disinfect High-touch surfaces in your room everyday. Always use disinfecting wipes and try to wear disposable glove while cleaning your room.
  • High-touch surfaces are touched often and may include door handles, toilet fixtures, light switches, tabletops, bedside tables, remote controls, phones, tablets, computer mouse, keyboards, video game controllers etc.
  • In many countries to threaten others with infection by coronavirus, for example by coughing or spitting in their direction purposely is a criminal offence.
  • There have been no documented cases of the COVID-19 transmission via clothing and shoes at this point. However, in theory, the virus could survive longer on less absorbent parts of clothes, like buttons or clasps.
  • Dogs and cats can be infected by coronavirus but they can’t shed enough virus. A study revealed that there is no evidence that dogs and cats can transfer COVID-19 back to people.

How long does Coronavirus live on different surfaces?

Preliminary research suggests that the coronavirus can survive longer on harder surfaces like metal and plastic. Here’s how long the virus could last on common surfaces but this is still subject to a upcoming researches.

  • Paper and Tissue Paper                  3 hours
  • Copper                                                4 hours
  • Cardboard                                        24 hours
  • Wood                                                 48 hours
  • Steel and Plastic                             72 hours
  • Glass and Paper money                    4 days

High-Touch Surfaces